String Formatting

Python uses C-style string formatting to create new, formatted strings. The "%" operator is used to format a set of variables enclosed in a "tuple" (a fixed size list), together with a format string, which contains normal text together with "argument specifiers", special symbols like "%s" and "%d".


# This prints out "Hello, John!"
name = "John"
print "Hello, %s!" % name

To use two or more argument specifiers, use a tuple (parentheses):

# This prints out "John is 23 years old."
name = "John"
age = 23
print "%s is %d years old." % (name, age)

Any object which is not a string can be formatted using the %s operator as well. The string which returns from the "repr" method of that object is formatted as the string. For example:

# This prints out: A list: [1, 2, 3]
mylist = [1,2,3]
print "A list: %s" % mylist

Here are some basic argument specifiers you should know:

%s - String (or any object with a string representation, like numbers)
%d - Integers
%f - Floating point numbers
%.<number of digits>f - Floating point numbers with a fixed amount of digits to the right of the dot.
%x/%X - Integers in hex representation (lowercase/uppercase)

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