Modules and Packages

Modules in Python are simply Python files with the .py extension, which implement a set of functions. Modules are imported from other modules using theimport command.

To import a module, we use the import command. Check out the full list of built-in modules in the Python standard library here.

The first time a module is loaded into a running Python script, it is initialized by executing the code in the module once. If another module in your code imports the same module again, it will not be loaded twice but once only - so local variables inside the module act as a "singleton" - they are initialized only once.

If we want to import the module urllib, which enables us to create read data from URLs, we simply import the module:

# import the library
import urllib

Exploring built-in modules

Two very important functions come in handy when exploring modules in Python - the dir and help functions.

We can look for which functions are implemented in each module by using the dir function:

>>> import urllib
>>> dir(urllib)
['ContentTooShortError', 'FancyURLopener', 'MAXFTPCACHE', 'URLopener', '__all__', '__builtins__', '__doc__', '__file__', '__name__', '__package__', '__version__', '_asciire', '_ftperrors', '_have_ssl', '_hexdig', '_hextochr', '_hostprog', '_is_unicode', '_localhost', '_noheaders', '_nportprog', '_passwdprog', '_portprog', '_queryprog', '_safe_map', '_safe_quoters', '_tagprog', '_thishost', '_typeprog', '_urlopener', '_userprog', '_valueprog', 'addbase', 'addclosehook', 'addinfo', 'addinfourl', 'always_safe', 'base64', 'basejoin', 'c', 'ftpcache', 'ftperrors', 'ftpwrapper', 'getproxies', 'getproxies_environment', 'i', 'localhost', 'noheaders', 'os', 'pathname2url', 'proxy_bypass', 'proxy_bypass_environment', 'quote', 'quote_plus', 're', 'reporthook', 'socket', 'splitattr', 'splithost', 'splitnport', 'splitpasswd', 'splitport', 'splitquery', 'splittag', 'splittype', 'splituser', 'splitvalue', 'ssl', 'string', 'sys', 'test1', 'thishost', 'time', 'toBytes', 'unquote', 'unquote_plus', 'unwrap', 'url2pathname', 'urlcleanup', 'urlencode', 'urlopen', 'urlretrieve']

When we find the function in the module we want to use, we can read about it more using the help function, inside the Python interpreter:


Writing modules

Writing Python modules is very simple. To create a module of your own, simply create a new .py file with the module name, and then import it using the Python file name (without the .py extension) using the import command.

Writing packages

Packages are namespaces which contain multiple packages and modules themselves. They are simply directories, but with a twist.

Each package in Python is a directory which MUST contain a special file called This file can be empty, and it indicates that the directory it contains is a Python package, so it can be imported the same way a module can be imported.

If we create a directory called foo, which marks the package name, we can then create a module inside that package called bar. We also must not forget to add the file inside the foo directory.

To use the module bar, we can import it in two ways:



from foo import bar

In the first method, we must use the foo prefix whenever we access the module bar. In the second method, we don't, because we import the module to our module's namespace.

The file can also decide which modules the package exports as the API, while keeping other modules internal, by overriding the __all__variable, like so:

__all__ = ["bar"]

Locating Modules

When you import a module, the Python interpreter searches for the module in the following sequences ?

  • The current directory.

  • If the module isn't found in current directory, Python then searches each directory in the shell variable PYTHONPATH.

  • If all else fails, Python checks the default path. On Unix/Linux, this default path is normally /usr/local/lib/python/.

The module search path is stored in the system module sys as the sys.path variable. The sys.path variable contains the current directory, PYTHONPATH, and the installation-dependent default.

The PYTHONPATH Variable:

The PYTHONPATH is an environment variable, consisting of a list of directories. The syntax of PYTHONPATH is the same as that of the shell variable PATH.

Here is a typical PYTHONPATH from a Windows system:

set PYTHONPATH=c:\python\lib;

And here is a typical PYTHONPATH from a Unix/Linux system:

set PYTHONPATH=/usr/local/lib/python

Namespaces and Scoping

Variables are names (identifiers) that map to objects. A namespace is a dictionary of variable names (keys) and their corresponding objects (values).

A Python statement can access variables in a local namespace and in the global namespace. If a local and a global variable have the same name, the local variable shadows the global variable. Each function has its own local namespace. Class methods follow the same scoping rule as ordinary functions.  Python assumes that any variable assigned a value in a function is local.  Therefore, in order to assign a value to a global variable within a function, you must first use the global statement.  The statement global VarName tells Python that VarName is a global variable. Python stops searching the local namespace for the variable. 



Age = 30
def addAge():
   # Uncomment the following line to fix the code:
   # global Age
   Age = Age + 1

print Age
print Age


Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "", line 10, in 
  File "", line 7, in addAge
    Age = Age + 1
UnboundLocalError: local variable 'Age' referenced before assignment

Now, when you uncomment #global Age, you will get below result.


Age = 30
def addAge():
   # Uncomment the following line to fix the code:
   global Age
   Age = Age + 1

print Age
print Age

Result : 


The globals() and locals() Functions ?

The globals() and locals() functions can be used to return the names in the global and local namespaces depending on the location from where they are called.

If locals() is called from within a function, it will return all the names that can be accessed locally from that function.

If globals() is called from within a function, it will return all the names that can be accessed globally from that function.

The return type of both these functions is dictionary. Therefore, names can be extracted using the keys() function. 

The reload() Function

When the module is imported into a script, the code in the top-level portion of a module is executed only once.

Therefore, if you want to reexecute the top-level code in a module, you can use thereload() function. The reload() function imports a previously imported module again. The syntax of the reload() function is this ?


Here, module_name is the name of the module you want to reload and not the string containing the module name. For example, to reload hello module, do the following ?


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